Wool is by far the primary material. It is used to construct the rug's structure. The majority of wool comes from sheep, though there are some occasions when weavers use wool from different animals, such as camels or goats. The wool from camels and goats is used, for example, in Kelim(Kilim) rugs.
- Gold or Silver threads
The softest wool comes from lambs (8-14 months) and is called KORK. You find KORK in high-end rugs with high KPSI. Rugs that are made with KORK are smooth, thin, glossy and soft. You often find KORK in city rugs.
Cotton is also used in many rugs to warp looms. You can see the cotton on the backside of Tribal rugs, for example.
Silk is smoothest of all materials used in rugs and carpets. It provides rugs with extreme softness and reflection. The existence of Silk in Persian rugs is another indication of the quality of the rug. Usually, silk is used for flowers in motifs and medallions. These types of rugs are very famous in TABRIZ.
Some rugs are pure Silk. These types of rugs have the highest KPSI and usually are smaller in size. Cities like QOM, KASHAN and ISFAHAN are famous for their silk rugs.
Gold and Silver threads are also used in rugs and carpets. The most famous examples are Polonaise carpets.
Polonaise carpets are a group of 17th century Persian rugs possibly woven in KASHAN or ISFAHAN that were given as gifts to European dignitaries. They were woven in silk, gold and silver threads. They are named polonaise because they were first exhibited in Poland and bore the Polish royal family's coat of arms.